Ägypten ist ein Land voller atemberaubender Bauwerke unwirklichen Ausmaßes, Mythologie und des Gefühls, zwischen bedeutenden Stücken der. Flag Ägypten Ägypten (Arabische Republik Ägypten). Stand (Unverändert gültig seit: ). Ob Strandurlaub am Roten Meer, Nilkreuzfahrt oder Trip zu den Pyramiden: Ägypten ist ein vielfältiges Urlaubsziel, das euch in seinen Bann ziehen wird!
Willkommen auf den Seiten des Auswärtigen AmtsÄgypten: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise (Teilreisewarnung und COVIDbedingte Reisewarnung) Ägypten. Stand - (Unverändert gültig seit. Ob Strandurlaub am Roten Meer, Nilkreuzfahrt oder Trip zu den Pyramiden: Ägypten ist ein vielfältiges Urlaubsziel, das euch in seinen Bann ziehen wird! Flag Ägypten Ägypten (Arabische Republik Ägypten). Stand (Unverändert gültig seit: ).
Ägupten Navigation menu VideoWohnungsrundgang 🥰 Eid Ägypten (Aussprache [ɛˈɡʏptn̩] oder [ ɛˈɡɪptn̩]; arabisch مصر Miṣr, offiziell Arabische Republik Ägypten) ist ein Staat im nordöstlichen Afrika mit über Ägypten: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise (Teilreisewarnung und COVIDbedingte Reisewarnung) Ägypten. Stand - (Unverändert gültig seit. Ägypten: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise (Teilreisewarnung und COVIDbedingte Reisewarnung) Ägypten. Stand - (Unverändert. In Ägypten kann man nicht nur Sonne, Strand und Meer in vollen Zügen genießen, sondern auch die berühmte Herzlichkeit und Gastfreundschaft der Ägypter. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Egypt. By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and Notorious Deutsch Indies. Retrieved 18 June
Beispielsweise den alten Schwarz-Wei-Klassiker ägupten George A? - Die besten Angebote für die schönsten Regionen ÄgyptensLuxor bedeutet übersetzt Stadt der Paläste.
Schon im Altertum gab es ein Ägyptisches Reich , das man wegen seiner Pharaonen und Pyramiden kennt. Später wurde die Gegend griechisch und römisch.
Um das Jahr kamen Araber mit dem Islam , die das Land eroberten. Seitdem spricht man in Ägypten Arabisch.
Die meisten Menschen sind Muslime. Von bis war das Land eine Kolonie der Briten. Danach war Ägypten ein Königreich und wurde später eine Republik.
Dort wachsen Gras und Büsche. Dazwischen gibt es Oasen , in denen vor allem Dattelpalmen wachsen, aber auch andere Früchte und Gemüse.
Es gibt nur wenige grüne Landschaften in Ägypten, das sieht man auch gut auf dem Satellitenbild rechts. Hauptsächlich ist das ein Streifen entlang dem Nil.
Schon im Altertum legten dort die Menschen Kanäle zur Bewässerung an. Wo Wasser hingelangt, lässt sich sehr gut Landwirtschaft betreiben.
Ebenfalls sehr grün ist das Delta. Dies ist das flache Gebiet in der Nähe der Mündung des Nils. Weil das Land dort sehr flach ist, verzweigt sich der Fluss in viele Arme.
Die übrigen Gebiete sind ebenfalls mit Kanälen zur Bewässerung erschlossen. Die Sinai- Halbinsel liegt im Osten des Landes. Auf seiner Ostseite bildet der Golf von Akaba die Grenze.
Auf der Westseite liegt ein Gebiet, das zum Teil sumpfig ist. Dort hindurch soll Mose sein Volk geführt haben, beim Auszug nach Israel.
Die Anzahl der Neuinfektionen in Ägypten liegt aktuell bei Im Durchschnitt der letzten 7 Tage wurden erfasst. Aufgrund unterschiedlicher Erfassung und Übermittlung neuer Daten ist der 7-Tage-Durchschnitt der Neuinfektionen oft aussagekräftiger.
In der letzten Woche wurden in Ägypten 3,6 Neuinfektionen pro Aufgrund der aktuellen Fallzahlen der Neuinfektionen wird Ägypten als COVID Risikogebiet eingestuft, verbunden mit einer Reisewarnung durch die deutschen Behörden.
Ägypten gilt als " Hochinzidenzgebiet ", mit einem besonders hohen Infektionsrisiko durch besonders hohe Inzidenzwerte.
Ägypten belegt den Platz im Vergleich der höchsten Infektionsraten aller Länder. Ein günstiger Geldumtausch ist in den örtlichen Wechselstuben möglich.
Auch viele Hotels bieten einen Wechselservice an. Die lokalen Konditionen von seriösen Anbietern sind in der Regel besser als die der eigenen Hausbank, zudem ist die Einfuhr der Landeswährung nicht unbegrenzt möglich.
Den günstigsten Umrechnungskurs erhält man meist beim Bargeldbezug per EC- oder Kreditkarte am Geldautomaten, je nach Karte sogar gebührenfrei.
In kleineren Läden oder auf Märkten ist Bargeld ein beliebtes Zahlungsmittel. Der Fahrpreis wird am besten in abgezählten Münzen direkt beim Fahrer bezahlt.
Mit dem Fahrer wird vorab ein Festpreis für die gewünschte Strecke ausgehandelt oder man kann sogar ganze Tagesausflüge oder Stadtrundfahrten vereinbaren.
Als Fremdsprache der Oberschicht galt lange Zeit Französisch, in der heutige Zeit ist Englisch weit verbreitet.
In touristischen Orten und Regionen sowie bei lokalen Veranstaltern werden in der Regel Englisch und Deutsch gesprochen.
Afrika Ägypten. Einreisebeschränkungen: Aktuelle Informationen zu Ägypten finden Sie hier. El-Guna, Hurghada. Hatschepsut-Tempel, Luxor, Sonstiges Ägypten.
Über Ägypten Es ist das Land der Pharaonen, Pyramiden und der Sphinx. Das orientalische Ambiente macht jeden Urlaub zu einem faszinierenden und einzigartigen Erlebnis.
Mit langen Küstenstreifen am Mittelmeer sowie am Roten Meer fühlen sich hier Bade- und Strandurlauber überaus wohl.
This period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs , including Hatshepsut , Thutmose III , Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti , Tutankhamun and Ramesses II.
The first historically attested expression of monotheism came during this period as Atenism. Frequent contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom.
The country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans , Nubians and Assyrians , but native Egyptians eventually drove them out and regained control of their country.
Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh , but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa in Persia modern Iran , leaving Egypt under the control of a satrapy.
The entire Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt , from to BCE, save for Petubastis III , was an entirely Persian ruled period, with the Achaemenid Emperors all being granted the title of pharaoh.
A few temporarily successful revolts against the Persians marked the fifth century BCE, but Egypt was never able to permanently overthrow the Persians.
The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians again in BCE after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II , was defeated in battle.
This Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt , however, did not last long, for the Persians were toppled several decades later by Alexander the Great. The Macedonian Greek general of Alexander, Ptolemy I Soter , founded the Ptolemaic dynasty.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia.
Alexandria became the capital city and a centre of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs.
The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life.
The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII , who committed suicide following the burial of her lover Mark Antony who had died in her arms from a self-inflicted stab wound , after Octavian had captured Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome.
Nevertheless, Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim conquest. Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century.
The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in CE , a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a brief Sasanian Persian invasion early in the 7th century amidst the Byzantine—Sasanian War of — during which they established a new short-lived province for ten years known as Sasanian Egypt , until —42, when Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire by the Muslim Arabs.
When they defeated the Byzantine armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day.
In an army of some 4, men were sent against Egypt by the second caliph, Umar, under the command of Amr ibn al-As.
This army was joined by another 5, men in and defeated a Byzantine army at the battle of Heliopolis.
Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria, which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on 8 November Alexandria was regained for the Byzantine Empire in but was retaken by Amr in In an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed.
From that time no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country. The Arabs founded the capital of Egypt called Fustat , which was later burned down during the Crusades.
Cairo was later built in the year to grow to become the largest and richest city in the Arab Empire , and one of the biggest and richest in the world.
The Abbasid period was marked by new taxations, and the Copts revolted again in the fourth year of Abbasid rule. At the beginning of the 9th century the practice of ruling Egypt through a governor was resumed under Abdallah ibn Tahir , who decided to reside at Baghdad , sending a deputy to Egypt to govern for him.
In another Egyptian revolt broke out, and in the Copts joined with native Muslims against the government. Eventually the power loss of the Abbasids in Baghdad has led for general upon general to take over rule of Egypt, yet being under Abbasid allegiance, the Tulunid dynasty — and Ikhshidid dynasty — were among the most successful to defy the Abbasid Caliph.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Caliphate remained in control of Egypt for the next six centuries, with Cairo as the seat of the Fatimid Caliphate.
With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty , the Mamluks , a Turco - Circassian military caste, took control about By the late 13th century, Egypt linked the Red Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies.
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in , after which it became a province of the Ottoman Empire. The defensive militarisation damaged its civil society and economic institutions.
Portuguese traders took over their trade. Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks , the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries.
Egypt remained semi-autonomous under the Mamluks until it was invaded by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte in see French campaign in Egypt and Syria.
After the French were defeated by the British, a power vacuum was created in Egypt, and a three-way power struggle ensued between the Ottoman Turks , Egyptian Mamluks who had ruled Egypt for centuries, and Albanian mercenaries in the service of the Ottomans.
After the French were expelled, power was seized in by Muhammad Ali Pasha , an Albanian military commander of the Ottoman army in Egypt.
While he carried the title of viceroy of Egypt, his subordination to the Ottoman porte was merely nominal. The introduction in of long-staple cotton transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop monoculture before the end of the century, concentrating land ownership and shifting production towards international markets.
Muhammad Ali annexed Northern Sudan — , Syria , and parts of Arabia and Anatolia ; but in the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans.
His military ambition required him to modernise the country: he built industries, a system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil service.
He constructed a military state with around four percent of the populace serving the army to raise Egypt to a powerful positioning in the Ottoman Empire in a way showing various similarities to the Soviet strategies without communism conducted in the 20th century.
He introduced conscription of the male peasantry in 19th century Egypt, and took a novel approach to create his great army, strengthening it with numbers and in skill.
Education and training of the new soldiers became mandatory; the new concepts were furthermore enforced by isolation. The men were held in barracks to avoid distraction of their growth as a military unit to be reckoned with.
The resentment for the military way of life eventually faded from the men and a new ideology took hold, one of nationalism and pride.
It was with the help of this newly reborn martial unit that Muhammad Ali imposed his rule over Egypt. The policy that Mohammad Ali Pasha followed during his reign explains partly why the numeracy in Egypt compared to other North-African and Middle-Eastern countries increased only at a remarkably small rate, as investment in further education only took place in the military and industrial sector.
Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim in September , then by a grandson Abbas I in November , then by Said in , and Isma'il in who encouraged science and agriculture and banned slavery in Egypt.
Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained nominally an Ottoman province. It was granted the status of an autonomous vassal state or Khedivate in , a legal status which was to remain in place until although the Ottomans had no power or presence.
The Suez Canal , built in partnership with the French, was completed in Its construction was financed by European banks.
Large sums also went to patronage and corruption. New taxes caused popular discontent. In Isma'il avoided bankruptcy by selling all Egypt's shares in the canal to the British government.
Within three years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government.
Other circumstances like epidemic diseases cattle disease in the s , floods and wars drove the economic downturn and increased Egypt's dependency on foreign debt even further.
After increasing tensions and nationalist revolts, the United Kingdom invaded Egypt in , crushing the Egyptian army at the Battle of Tell El Kebir and militarily occupying the country.
In the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement was signed: the Agreement stated that Sudan would be jointly governed by the Khedivate of Egypt and the United Kingdom.
However, actual control of Sudan was in British hands only. In , the Denshawai incident prompted many neutral Egyptians to join the nationalist movement.
In the Ottoman Empire entered World War I in alliance with the Central Empires; Khedive Abbas II who had grown increasingly hostile to the British in preceding years decided to support the motherland in war.
Following such decision, the British forcibly removed him from power and replaced him with his brother Hussein Kamel. Hussein Kamel declared Egypt's independence from the Ottoman Empire, assuming the title of Sultan of Egypt.
Shortly following independence, Egypt was declared a protectorate of the United Kingdom. After World War I , Saad Zaghlul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the local Legislative Assembly.
When the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta on 8 March , the country arose in its first modern revolution. The revolt led the UK government to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt's independence on 22 February Following independence from the United Kingdom, Sultan Fuad I assumed the title of King of Egypt ; despite being nominally independent, the Kingdom was still under British military occupation and the UK still had great influence over the state.
The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in based on a parliamentary system. The nationalist Wafd Party won a landslide victory in the — election and Saad Zaghloul was appointed as the new Prime Minister.
In , the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded and British troops withdrew from Egypt, except for the Suez Canal.
The treaty did not resolve the question of Sudan , which, under the terms of the existing Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of , stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands.
Britain used Egypt as a base for Allied operations throughout the region, especially the battles in North Africa against Italy and Germany.
Its highest priorities were control of the Eastern Mediterranean, and especially keeping the Suez Canal open for merchant ships and for military connections with India and Australia.
The government of Egypt, and the Egyptian population, played a minor role in the Second World War. When the war began in September , Egypt declared martial law and broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.
It did not declare war on Germany, but the Prime Minister associated Egypt with the British war effort. It broke diplomatic relations with Italy in , but never declared war, even when the Italian army invaded Egypt.
King Farouk took practically a neutral position, which accorded with elite opinion among the Egyptians.
The Egyptian army did no fighting. It was apathetic about the war, with the leading officers looking on the British as occupiers and sometimes holding some private sympathy with the Axis.
In June the King dismissed Prime Minister Aly Maher, who got on poorly with the British. A new coalition Government was formed with the Independent Hassan Pasha Sabri as Prime Minister.
Following a ministerial crisis in February , the ambassador Sir Miles Lampson , pressed Farouk to have a Wafd or Wafd-coalition government replace Hussein Sirri Pasha 's government.
On the night of 4 February , British troops and tanks surrounded Abdeen Palace in Cairo and Lampson presented Farouk with an ultimatum.
Farouk capitulated, and Nahhas formed a government shortly thereafter. However, the humiliation meted out to Farouk, and the actions of the Wafd in cooperating with the British and taking power, lost support for both the British and the Wafd among both civilians and, more importantly, the Egyptian military.
Most British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in although the British army maintained a military base in the area , but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the War.
Anti-monarchy sentiments further increased following the disastrous performance of the Kingdom in the First Arab-Israeli War. The election saw a landslide victory of the nationalist Wafd Party and the King was forced to appoint Mostafa El-Nahas as new Prime Minister.
In Egypt unilaterally withdrew from the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of and ordered all remaining British troops to leave the Suez Canal. As the British refused to leave their base around the Suez Canal, the Egyptian government cut off the water and refused to allow food into the Suez Canal base, announced a boycott of British goods, forbade Egyptian workers from entering the base and sponsored guerrilla attacks, turning the area around the Suez Canal into a low level war zone.
On 24 January , Egyptian guerrillas staged a fierce attack on the British forces around the Suez Canal, during which the Egyptian Auxiliary Police were observed helping the guerrillas.
In response, on 25 January, General George Erskine sent out British tanks and infantry to surround the auxiliary police station in Ismailia and gave the policemen an hour to surrender their arms on the grounds the police were arming the guerrillas.
The police commander called the Interior Minister, Fouad Serageddin , Nahas's right-hand man, who was smoking cigars in his bath at the time, to ask if he should surrender or fight.
Serageddin ordered the police to fight "to the last man and the last bullet". The resulting battle saw the police station levelled and 43 Egyptian policemen killed together with 3 British soldiers.
The Ismailia incident outraged Egypt. The next day, 26 January was "Black Saturday" , as the anti-British riot was known, that saw much of downtown Cairo which the Khedive Ismail the Magnificent had rebuilt in the style of Paris, burned down.
Farouk blamed the Wafd for the Black Saturday riot, and dismissed Nahas as prime minister the next day. He was replaced by Aly Maher Pasha. Farouk I abdicated the throne to his son Fouad II , who was, at the time, a seven month old baby.
The Royal Family left Egypt some days later and the Council of Regency, led by Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim was formed, The council, however, held only nominal authority and the real power was actually in the hands of the Revolutionary Command Council , led by Naguib and Nasser.
Popular expectations for immediate reforms led to the workers' riots in Kafr Dawar on 12 August , which resulted in two death sentences. Following a brief experiment with civilian rule, the Free Officers abrogated the monarchy and the constitution and declared Egypt a republic on 18 June Naguib was proclaimed as president, while Nasser was appointed as the new Prime Minister.
Following the Revolution by the Free Officers Movement , the rule of Egypt passed to military hands and all political parties were banned.
On 18 June , the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic, serving in that capacity for a little under one and a half years.
After Naguib's resignation, the position of President was vacant until the election of Gamal Abdel Nasser in In October Egypt and the United Kingdom agreed to abolish the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of and grant Sudan independence; the agreement came into force on 1 January Nasser assumed power as president in June British forces completed their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone on 13 June He nationalised the Suez Canal on 26 July ; his hostile approach towards Israel and economic nationalism prompted the beginning of the Second Arab-Israeli War Suez Crisis , in which Israel with support from France and the United Kingdom occupied the Sinai peninsula and the Canal.
The war came to an end because of US and USSR diplomatic intervention and the status quo was restored. In , Egypt and Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United Arab Republic.
The union was short-lived, ending in when Syria seceded, thus ending the union. During most of its existence, the United Arab Republic was also in a loose confederation with North Yemen or the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen , known as the United Arab States.
In , the All-Palestine Government of the Gaza Strip, an Egyptian client state, was absorbed into the United Arab Republic under the pretext of Arab union, and was never restored.
The Arab Socialist Union , a new nasserist state-party was founded in In the early s, Egypt became fully involved in the North Yemen Civil War.
The Egyptian President, Gamal Abdel Nasser, supported the Yemeni republicans with as many as 70, Egyptian troops and chemical weapons. Despite several military moves and peace conferences, the war sank into a stalemate.
Egyptian commitment in Yemen was greatly undermined later. In mid May , the Soviet Union issued warnings to Nasser of an impending Israeli attack on Syria.
Although the chief of staff Mohamed Fawzi verified them as "baseless",   Nasser took three successive steps that made the war virtually inevitable: on 14 May he deployed his troops in Sinai near the border with Israel, on 19 May he expelled the UN peacekeepers stationed in the Sinai Peninsula border with Israel, and on 23 May he closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping.
Israel re-iterated that the Straits of Tiran closure was a Casus belli. This prompted the beginning of the Third Arab Israeli War Six-Day War in which Israel attacked Egypt, and occupied Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip , which Egypt had occupied since the Arab—Israeli War.
At the time of the fall of the Egyptian monarchy in the early s, less than half a million Egyptians were considered upper class and rich, four million middle class and 17 million lower class and poor.
Nasser's policies changed this. Land reform and distribution, the dramatic growth in university education, and government support to national industries greatly improved social mobility and flattened the social curve.
From academic year —54 through —66, overall public school enrolments more than doubled. Millions of previously poor Egyptians, through education and jobs in the public sector, joined the middle class.
Doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers, journalists, constituted the bulk of the swelling middle class in Egypt under Nasser.
In , President Nasser died of a heart attack and was succeeded by Anwar Sadat. Sadat switched Egypt's Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in He launched the Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition.
In , Egypt, along with Syria, launched the Fourth Arab-Israeli War Yom Kippur War , a surprise attack to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier.
It presented Sadat with a victory that allowed him to regain the Sinai later in return for peace with Israel.
In , Sadat shifted Nasser's economic policies and sought to use his popularity to reduce government regulations and encourage foreign investment through his program of Infitah.
Through this policy, incentives such as reduced taxes and import tariffs attracted some investors, but investments were mainly directed at low risk and profitable ventures like tourism and construction, abandoning Egypt's infant industries.
In , Sadat dissolved the Arab Socialist Union and replaced it with the National Democratic Party.
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in , which led to the peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.
Sadat's initiative sparked enormous controversy in the Arab world and led to Egypt's expulsion from the Arab League , but it was supported by most Egyptians.
Hosni Mubarak came to power after the assassination of Sadat in a referendum in which he was the only candidate. Hosni Mubarak reaffirmed Egypt's relationship with Israel yet eased the tensions with Egypt's Arab neighbours.
Domestically, Mubarak faced serious problems. Even though farm and industry output expanded, the economy could not keep pace with the population boom.
Mass poverty and unemployment led rural families to stream into cities like Cairo where they ended up in crowded slums, barely managing to survive.
On 25 February Security Police started rioting, protesting against reports that their term of duty was to be extended from 3 to 4 years.
Hotels, nightclubs, restaurants and casinos were attacked in Cairo and there were riots in other cities. A day time curfew was imposed.
It took the army 3 days to restore order. In the s, s, and s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became numerous and severe, and began to target Christian Copts , foreign tourists and government officials.
Serious damage was done to the largest sector of Egypt's economy—tourism  —and in turn to the government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the people on whom the group depended for support.
During Mubarak's reign, the political scene was dominated by the National Democratic Party , which was created by Sadat in It passed the Syndicates Law, Press Law, and Nongovernmental Associations Law which hampered freedoms of association and expression by imposing new regulations and draconian penalties on violations.
On 17 November , 62 people, mostly tourists, were massacred near Luxor. In late February , Mubarak announced a reform of the presidential election law, paving the way for multi-candidate polls for the first time since the movement.
Human Rights Watch's report on Egypt detailed serious human rights violations, including routine torture , arbitrary detentions and trials before military and state security courts.
Constitutional changes voted on 19 March prohibited parties from using religion as a basis for political activity, allowed the drafting of a new anti-terrorism law, authorised broad police powers of arrest and surveillance, and gave the president power to dissolve parliament and end judicial election monitoring.
Ali El Deen Hilal Dessouki, Media Secretary of the National Democratic Party NDP , described Egypt as a " pharaonic " political system, and democracy as a "long-term goal".
Dessouki also stated that "the real center of power in Egypt is the military". On 25 January , widespread protests began against Mubarak's government.
On 11 February , Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Jubilant celebrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square at the news.
A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March On 28 November , Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power.
Turnout was high and there were no reports of major irregularities or violence. Mohamed Morsi was elected president on 24 June Liberal and secular groups walked out of the constituent assembly because they believed that it would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood backers threw their support behind Morsi.
The move led to massive protests and violent action throughout Egypt. On 3 July , after a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood government,  the military removed Morsi from office, dissolved the Shura Council and installed a temporary interim government.
On 4 July , year-old Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour was sworn in as acting president over the new government following the removal of Morsi.
On 18 January , the interim government instituted a new constitution following a referendum approved by an overwhelming majority of voters On 26 March , Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi , Egyptian Defence Minister and Commander-in-Chief Egyptian Armed Forces , retired from the military, announcing he would stand as a candidate in the presidential election.
The Muslim Brotherhood and some liberal and secular activist groups boycotted the vote. A new parliamentary election was held in December , resulting in a landslide victory for pro-Sisi parties, which secured a strong majority in the newly formed House of Representatives.
In , Egypt entered in a diplomatic crisis with Italy following the murder of researcher Giulio Regeni : in April , Prime Minister Matteo Renzi recalled the Italian ambassador from Cairo because of lack of co-operation from the Egyptian Government in the investigation.
The ambassador was sent back to Egypt in by the new Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni. El-Sisi was re-elected in , facing no serious opposition.
In , a series of constitutional amendments were approved by the parliament, further increasing the President's and the military's power, increasing presidential terms from 4 years to 6 years and allowing El-Sisi to run for other two mandates.
The proposals were approved in a referendum. The dispute between Egypt and Ethiopia over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam escalated in Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west, the Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east.
Egypt's important role in geopolitics stems from its strategic position: a transcontinental nation , it possesses a land bridge the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, traversed by a navigable waterway the Suez Canal that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea.
Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few oases scattered about. Egypt includes parts of the Sahara desert and of the Libyan Desert.
These deserts protected the Kingdom of the Pharaohs from western threats and were referred to as the "red land" in ancient Egypt. Towns and cities include Alexandria , the second largest city; Aswan ; Asyut ; Cairo , the modern Egyptian capital and largest city; El Mahalla El Kubra ; Giza , the site of the Pyramid of Khufu; Hurghada ; Luxor ; Kom Ombo ; Port Safaga ; Port Said ; Sharm El Sheikh ; Suez , where the south end of the Suez Canal is located; Zagazig ; and Minya.
Oases include Bahariya , Dakhla , Farafra , Kharga and Siwa. Protectorates include Ras Mohamed National Park, Zaranik Protectorate and Siwa.
On 13 March , plans for a proposed new capital of Egypt were announced. Most of Egypt's rain falls in the winter months. Snow falls on Sinai's mountains and some of the north coastal cities such as Damietta , Baltim and Sidi Barrani , and rarely in Alexandria.
A very small amount of snow fell on Cairo on 13 December , the first time in many decades. Egypt is the driest and the sunniest country in the world, and most of its land surface is desert.
Egypt has an unusually hot, sunny and dry climate. Average high temperatures are high in the north but very to extremely high in the rest of the country during summer.
The cooler Mediterranean winds consistently blow over the northern sea coast, which helps to get more moderated temperatures, especially at the height of the summertime.
The Khamaseen is a hot, dry wind that originates from the vast deserts in the south and blows in the spring or in the early summer.
The absolute highest temperatures in Egypt occur when the Khamaseen blows. The weather is always sunny and clear in Egypt, especially in cities such as Aswan , Luxor and Asyut.
It is one of the least cloudy and least rainy regions on Earth. Prior to the construction of the Aswan Dam , the Nile flooded annually colloquially The Gift of the Nile replenishing Egypt's soil.
This gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years. The potential rise in sea levels due to global warming could threaten Egypt's densely populated coastal strip and have grave consequences for the country's economy, agriculture and industry.
Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts.
Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June , and became a party to the convention on 2 June The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: algae species , animals about 15, species of which more than 10, were insects , fungi more than species , monera species , plants species , protozoans species.
For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known.
Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt.
For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher.
The House of Representatives , whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, specialises in legislation. Elections were last held between November and January which was later dissolved.
The next parliamentary election was announced to be held within 6 months of the constitution's ratification on 18 January , and were held in two phases, from 17 October to 2 December Official figures showed a turnout of 25,, or After a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of the Muslim Brotherhood government of President Mohamed Morsi ,  on 3 July then- General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi from office and the suspension of the constitution.
A member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted on 18 January In , Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt at 5 with 1 representing the most free and 7 the least , and civil liberties at 5, which gave it the freedom rating of "Partly Free".
Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.
Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world. It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of , and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit.
In , however, after the country's independence was declared, a new constitution provided for a parliamentary monarchy.
The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors.
It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian " deep state ".
According to the former chair of Israel's Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee, Yuval Steinitz , the Egyptian Air Force has roughly the same number of modern warplanes as the Israeli Air Force and far more Western tanks, artillery, anti-aircraft batteries and warships than the IDF.
Trump praised al-Sisi in what was reported as a public relations victory for the Egyptian president, and signaled it was time for a normalization of the relations between Egypt and the US.
The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. The Armed Forces' inventory includes equipment from different countries around the world.
Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.
Relations with China have also improved considerably. In , Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership".
The permanent headquarters of the Arab League are located in Cairo and the body's secretary general has traditionally been Egyptian.
This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. The Arab League briefly moved from Egypt to Tunis in to protest the Egypt—Israel Peace Treaty , but it later returned to Cairo in Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates  and Saudi Arabia ,  have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the overthrow of Morsi.
Following the war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel. Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians.
Ties between Egypt and other non-Arab Middle Eastern nations, including Iran and Turkey , have often been strained.